I just saw this very exciting-looking residency opportunity for translators at Ledig House in New York State. Residencies from two weeks to two months are available. Postal applications must be received by 20 October. The criteria seem very open. In addition, so the site says:
Ledig House International Writers Residency is proud to offer the 2011 Amazon Translator Fellowships through the generous support of Amazon.com. Supporting the work of translators is a major part of the Ledig House mandate and with this support from Amazon.com our organization is able to dramatically increase the scope of this mandate.
Three fellowships will be awarded; each will be one month in duration. Translators of all languages are welcome to apply. If you would like to be considered for an Amazon.com Translator Fellowship, please follow the general application guidelines. In the required description of your work to be completed at Ledig House, please be sure to state that you would like to be considered for an Amazon Translator Fellowship.
Two other recently sighted possible residency opportunities here, for translators from French, and here.